The Quad: A New Big East Is a Better Big East
While the Obama administration google sniper
release its 2012 budget google sniper review
Monday, Congress still has
not approved a
final 2011 budget
for the military. Now the Pentagon is warning
that it faces a crisis situation.
Perez took over
the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division in October, he
found an office that was a
shadow of its historic self.Each spring, huge patches of
phytoplankton bloom in the oceans,
turning cold, blue waters into teeming green pools of microbial life.
This ocean â€œgreening,â€ which can be
seen from space, mirrors the springtime thaw on land. But while
spring arrives gradually on land, with a few
blades here and some buds there, the oceans bloom seemingly overnight.â€œIf
you go and look in the ocean and try to sample in deep winter, thereâ€™s little phytoplankton,â€ says Raffaele Ferrari, the Breene
Kerr Professor of Oceanography in MITâ€™s
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. â€œItâ€™s like going
into a desert. And then all of a sudden you have this bloom explosion, and itâ€™s like a jungle.
There is an ongoing debate as to what triggers the bloom onset.â€Ferrari and John Taylor, a former postdoc at MIT and now a lecturer in oceanography at the University of Cambridge in the U.K., have identified where blooms are most likely
to start. The team found that phytoplankton grow up along ocean fronts, at the boundaries between cold and warm currents.
This explains why the ocean does not turn green everywhere at once, but rather develops
green streaks that track fronts.
simulations, Ferrari and Taylor found that at these
fronts, warm water slides over cold, denser water, creating a hospitable environment for microorganisms.
The findings, published online last week in
Geophysical Research Letters,
may help scientists predict where blooms
will spring up.Knowing how and where blooms occur may help scientists gauge an oceanâ€™s productivity from year to year.
The tiny microorganisms collectively known as phytoplankton are the foundation of the marine food web and account for half of the worldâ€™s photosynthetic activity, consuming carbon dioxide and sunlight to produce energy.Eric
Dâ€™Asaro, a professor of oceanography at the University of Washington, says predicting phytoplankton blooms may help
determine the amount of carbon dioxide taken up and stored
by the oceans.â€œPhytoplankton â€¦ take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, including the extra carbon dioxide
that we have put there,â€ says Dâ€™Asaro, who was not involved in the research. â€œA fraction of
this organic carbon then sinks
to deeper depths in the
removing it from the atmosphere and reducing the amount of greenhouse warming.â€Ferrari
and Taylor say
their findings suggest that ocean fronts are hotspots for phytoplankton growth and may be â€œcrucial playersâ€ in the global carbon cycle.Seeing the lightSince
phytoplankton depend on sunlight to grow, they
stay within 10 to 100 meters of the
in the euphotic layer where
sunlight can easily penetrate.
However, in winter,
intense cooling by atmospheric storms causes the surface waters to increase in density and
The sinking waters suck organisms down deep into the ocean, away from sustaining
â€œmixed layerâ€ churned by cooling,
organisms die off
and eventually sink into the ocean abyss. In
the winter, the
oceanâ€™s mixed layer runs deep, creating a â€œdesertâ€ with very little signs of life. â€œLife on earth depends on light,â€ Ferrari says, â€œand phytoplankton do
not see much light in winter.â€Ferrari and Taylor recently published a paper in Limnology and Oceanography where they identified a physical explanation for the onset of biological blooms. The team found
that in late winter, when harsh atmospheric cooling gives way to springtime warming,
mixing in the ocean subsides. Using numerical simulations, the researchers showed that decreased cooling turns the oceanâ€™s mixed layer into a quiet environment, the top of which has sufficient light to
host microbial growth.The
team then proposed that phytoplankton blooms start at
substantially reduce mixing in the upper ocean. Hence, they reasoned, phytoplankton find
at fronts â€” even in winter, when cooling has not yet subsided. They reasoned that the overall warming of the ocean in spring encourages phytoplankton to
grow beyond a frontâ€™s
boundaries, into large, sprawling blooms.Dâ€™Asaro
says the teamâ€™s findings present a compelling mechanism for ocean blooms.
However, he adds that to fully understand the causes of
ocean greening, one
has to consider biology along with physics.â€œIn
particular, [blooms depend on] the presence or absence of planktonic animals that could rapidly
eat the phytoplankton as they grow,â€ Dâ€™Asaro says. â€œItâ€™s
like a meadow â€” the grass will not grow tall in the spring if there are a lot
of cows in the meadow.â€Ferrari plans to test the theory next year off the coast
He hopes to deploy gliders, autonomous vehicles that will go up and down a water column for a year, monitoring temperature, salinity,
chlorophyll and light penetration. He also plans to deploy a meteorological buoy to track
surface fluxes of heat
and winds.â€œWeâ€™re going to be able to predict according to this argument where the blooms occur, and the gliders will tell us whether our prediction is right,â€ Ferrari says. â€œWe think itâ€™s a pretty general principle that must hold.â€ Dr. Paul W.
Juodawlkis, assistant leader of the
Electro-optical Materials and Devices Group at MIT Lincoln
Laboratory, was elevated to
the rank of Fellow
of the Optical Society (OSA) last month.
He was recognized for his "significant contributions to optically sampled analog-to-digital conversion and the development
of the slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifier."
The Optical Society, originally called the Optical Society
of America, was founded in 1916 to expand and disseminate knowledge of optics and to promote collaboration among investigators, designers and users of optical systems. This international association is the leading professional society of optics and photonics, and its membership of more than 18,000 includes optics and photonics scientists, engineers,
educators and business leaders.At Lincoln Laboratory, Juodawlkis's research
and leadership efforts since 1999 have been focused on the development of optical sampling
techniques for photonic
analog-to-digital converters, quantum-well electrorefractive modulators, high-power waveguide photodiodes, and high-power semiconductor optical amplifiers and their application in mode-locked lasers and narrow-linewidth external-cavity lasers.
From 1988 to
1993, he served as a radar systems engineer on a multisensor airborne test
bed program in the Tactical
Defense Systems Group at the Laboratory.
Between 1993 and
he was a member of the Ultrafast Optical Communications Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology.Juodawlkis
or co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal and conference publications. A senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),
he is very active in the IEEE Photonics Society. He has served as chair of the IEEE Photonics Society Technical Committee
on Microwave Photonics (2003â€“2006) and as a member of various technical committees
for other Photonics
Currently, he is completing a three-year term as an elected member of the IEEE Photonics Societyâ€™s Board of Governors and is a Technical Steering Committee member of the Societyâ€™s
Boston Chapter. Juodawlkis served as general co-chair of the 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics
(CLEO) and as program
co-chair of the 2010 CLEO.
At the plenary session of this year's
June, he will be recognized as a 2013 Fellow. He holds a BS degree from Michigan Technological University, an MS degree from Purdue University, and a PhD degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology,
all in electrical
engineering. The Making of the English Working
Class is 50 this year, yet it is still
widely revered as a canonical work of social historyFifty
years ago, an obscure historian working in the extra-mural department at the University of Leeds delivered a manuscript, overdue and over-length, to Victor Gollancz â€“ a publishing house then specialising in
non-fiction. No one could have foreseen the book's reception. EP
Thompson's The Making of the English Working Class became a runaway commercial and critical success. The demand for this 800-page doorstop was nothing short of
remarkable. In 1968, Pelican Books bought the rights to The Making and published a revised version as the 1,000th book on their list.
In less than a decade,
it had gone through a further five reprints.
Fifty years on, it is still in print, widely revered as a canonical work
of social history.It was not Thompson's first book.
A history of William Morris had appeared in 1955, and had been met with the indifference that is the fate
of most academic monographs.
After The Making came Whigs & Hunters, a book on the Black Acts â€“ the notorious Georgian legislation that criminalised
not only the killing of
deer, but also any suspicious activity that might hint at the intention to kill deer. This was followed by a series of colourful essays on diverse themes, including time and industrial capitalism, food
riots, and wife sales (yes, in
the 18th century men really did take
their wives to
market and "sell" them). Time and again, Thompson proved himself capable of taking on new topics and revisiting old
ones in new ways, creating a body of work that was original and hugely influential.And yet Thompson was never a conventional historian. His many years at Leeds were spent not in the history department, but
in adult education. His tenure at the newly created University of Warwick was brief: he resigned just
six years after taking up the post, disgusted at the commercial turn it was taking. Ever the man of letters, his
resignation was accompanied by a lengthy pamphlet outlining
his intellectual objections. The rest of his life was devoted to a range of political causes. Thompson was an active member of the Communist party in
the 40s and 50s, and founder of the Communist Party Historians
Group in 1946.
He was part of the mass exodus from the party in the 1950s following the Soviet invasion of Hungary, but remained closely allied with a range
By the end of the 1970s, Thompson was playing a key role, as both tireless organiser and intellectual figurehead, in
the nascent peace movement,
cause to which he remained devoted until his
in 1993. It was a life of activism no less than of
scholarship.But towering above it all remains The Making,
with its preface so memorably declaring the book's intention "to rescue the poor stockinger, the Luddite cropper, the 'obsolete' hand-loom weaver, the 'Utopian' artisan, and even the deluded follower of Joanna Southcott, from the enormous condescension
The book's mythic status should not distract us from the raw originality of the work. In 1963,
weavers and artisans were not the stuff of history books. Pioneering social historians had been
studying working people since the early 20th century, but
the focus remained squarely on the tangible, the measurable,
"significant" â€“ wages, living conditions, unions, strikes,
Chartists. Thompson touched on the trade unions and
the real wage, of course, but most of his book
to something that he referred to as "experience".
Through a patient and extensive examination of
local as well as national archives, Thompson had uncovered details about workshop customs and
rituals, failed conspiracies, threatening letters, popular songs, and union club cards.
He took what others had regarded
from the archive and interrogated them for what they told us about the beliefs
and aims of those who were not on the winning side. Here, then, was a book that rambled over aspects of human experience that had never before had their historian. And
the timing of its appearance could scarcely have been more fortunate. The 1960s saw unprecedented upheaval and expansion in the university sector, with the creation of new universities filled with lecturers and students whose
families had not traditionally had access to the privileged world of higher education. Little wonder, then, that so many felt a natural affinity with Thompson's outsiders and underdogs.And there
was something more.
Running through The Making
was a searing anger about economic exploitation and a robust commentary on his capitalist times.
Thompson rejected the notion that capitalism was inherently
superior to the alternative model of economic organisation it replaced.
He refused to accept that artisans had become obsolete, or that their
distress was a painful
but necessary adjustment to the market economy. It was an argument that resonated widely in the 1960s, when Marxist intellectuals could still believe
that a realistic alternative
to capitalism existed, could still argue that
"true" Marxism hadn't been tried properly.Appearing
in the heyday of Marxist
scholarship, The Making's political framework
lay at the heart of the book's success. Perhaps its greatest achievement, however, is how
it has managed to weather Marxism's subsequent fall from academic
By the 1980s, Marxist history no longer held a
significant place in
academic history departments. It has been on the defensive ever
the literary spat
and the Polish philosopher, Leszek KoÅ‚akowski â€“ who,
after years of living under Communism, had had
the temerity to desert the Marxist banner â€“ Tony Judt observed: "No one who
reads it will ever take EP Thompson
seriously again." And yet we
take Thompson seriously. More than any
of his books, The Making continues to delight and inspire new readers. Of course, Thompson's scholarship was partial and
driven by his politics. But the originality, vigour and iconoclasm of
his book make certain that it will endure.â€¢ Emma Griffin's Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution will be published by Yale later this month.â€¢
This article was
amended on 6
March 2013. The original said Stalin invaded Hungary. This has been corrected.SocietyHistoryPoliticsSocial historyguardian.co.uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All
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Corey Perry is following Ryan
Getzlaf's lead yet again, sticking
with the Anaheim Ducks
the long term. AL-RAM, WEST BANK - When the
game was finally over, after extra
time and penalty kicks, the Palestinian squad had lost to Thailand. But the Palestinian national team's first official soccer match on home turf Wednesday gave thousands of raucous fans who braved a cold and rain-lashed night a